Romance of a Gateway to Scotland
THE CITADEL STATION at Carlisle was formerly the meeting place of seven British railways, and was jointly owned by the Caledonian Railway and the LNWR. To-
IN the days before grouping, Carlisle shared with York the distinction of being the happiest of all happy hunting grounds for the railway enthusiast. The claims of York to popularity have already been dealt with, in the chapter beginning on page 375 of this work. Claims of Carlisle to favour were even more marked. Six of Britain’s leading railways -
making seven railways in all. Their owners painted their engines in black, red, blue, brown, and various shades of green, and further varied coach colours combined to produce a kaleidoscopic effect in rolling stock that was particularly attractive. More important than this, however, was the fact that this convergence of railways at the Border city of Carlisle made it a traffic centre of considerable note.
Principal among the routes passing through Carlisle is the West Coast main line of the LMS. Carlisle marked the northern extremity of the late London and North Western Railway, 299 miles from Euston terminus in London, and the southern extremity of the Caledonian Railway, which extended for 240¾ miles northwards to Aberdeen. The first eight or nine miles of the Caledonian main line were in England. At Carlisle the black engines of the LNWR were changed for the cobalt-
been absorbed in the LMS, the station is now exclusively LMS property, and LNER trains are admitted by “running powers”.
Next in importance was the Midland Railway, whose main line from St. Pancras, 309 miles long by the shortest route, also found its northern extremity in Carlisle. Curiously enough, Midland trains had to pass over a short length of North Eastern track, for half a mile from Petteril Bridge Junction, into the joint station, because the late North Eastern Railway, coming across the Pennines from Newcastle-
The other English railway entering Carlisle, and less well known to the average reader, was the Maryport and Carlisle. This railway, although its main line, to Maryport, was only twenty-
KINGMOOR. YARD, two miles north of Carlisle, is used for the marshalling of freight trains. In summer the down “Royal Scot” runs from Euston to Kingmoor, a distance of 301.1 miles, without a stop. The stop at Kingmoor is made for the purpose of changing engines.
Through trains were run between Carlisle and Whitehaven by this route. Now that both the Maryport and Carlisle and Furness Railways have come within the LMS group, a regular through service is run right round the north-
The two other railways entering from the north side were the Glasgow and South Western and North British, and both were in alliance with the Midland. The forrner, from Glasgow, Kilmarnock, and Dumfries, joined the Caledonian at Gretna Junction, eight and three-
and the “Waverley” country of the Scott novels, crossed the Caledonian line at Kingmoor, two miles north of Carlisle, and, describing a wide sweep to the west, picked up a branch from Silloth. It then doubled back eastwards, joining the Caledonian three-
Glasgow, being lettered “M & GSW”, and that for Edinburgh and Aberdeen “M & NB”, in accordance with the initials of the owning companies. A comparable practice obtained on the West Coast Route; the joint coaches of the London and North Westem and Caledonian Railways were inscribed “WCJS”, to indicate “West Coast Joint Stock”.
NEAR CARLISLE. Another view of the LMS Kingmoor Yard, where goods trains are made up. At Kingmoor are the LMS engine sheds that house locomotives working LMS trains north of Carlisle.
The Citadel Station at Carlisle is far from breaking any records in size, though it is big enough for the business which it has to transact, except, perhaps, at busy, week-
There are several bay platforms at Carlisle. The south end of the island platform has a single bay, used chiefly by trains for the Maryport and Whitehaven direction. Two platforms are let into the south end of the main up platform, used by LNER trains for Newcastle, and by local Midland trains for the Appleby direction. At the north encl of the same platform there are two similar bay platforms, used mainly by local LNER trains for the Silloth line and for the Hawick direction. The west side of the island is used exclusively for down trains, but the east side is used by up and down trains indiscriminately, as traffic conditions require. The station thus comprises three main through platforms and five short bays.
DURRAN HILL YARD lies about a mile and a quarter south-
The goods lines have been carried on an independent location well to the west of the station, directly connected by a maze of burrowing junctions with big marshalling yards of the LMS Western Division at Upperby, and with those of the Midland Division and LNER at Durran Hill. These freight lines rejoin the main line three-
All engines of outward-
BURROWING JUNCTIONS connect the goods line near Carlisle with big marshalling yards 6f the Midland Division of the LMS and of the LNER at Durran Hill. This illustration gives an idea of the large area covered by the yards adjacent to the north end of the station.
Northwards from Carlisle the West Coast trains have a good start, with a downhill inclination, until they have crossed the Solway, near Floriston, but after that they also have hard “collar-
The Glasgow and South Western Section, with a course farther to the west, does not rise above 615 feet, and the train is well beyond Dumfries, and thirty-
Worse than any of these, however, is the task set to engines of Midland Division trains leaving Carlisle for the south. In the forty-
This matter of gradients is stressed because of the frequency with which express trains were formerly seen to leave Carlisle, especially for the south, with two engines. The pilots assisted as far as Shap or Ais Giil, as occasion demanded, and were there detached. With the advent of more powerful locomotives, however, the practice of piloting is being steadily reduced.
THE IMPORTANCE OF CARLISLE as a through station is illustrated
by this diagram, which shows the station as a focal point for many
One of the two LNER routes leaving Carlisle -
The mention of “Pacifics” is a reminder of the fact that up to the present Carlisle has been, and still is, the only station in Great Britain at which the “Pacific” locomotives of the LNE and LMS Railways can be seen side by side. The lighter trains over the “Waverley Route” are generally headed by “Shire” class three-
Standardization is gradually reducing the varieties of LMS locomotives seen in Carlisle. In the earlier days of LMS history, four-
on the principal trains to the south, and three-
made the station the goal of their evening walk. “Cardean” regularly hauled the beautiful train of twelve-
The first post-
Another advantage is seen in the through working of locomotives. Whereas in pre-
THE ARRIVAL OF AN LMS EXPRESS at the down platform at Citadel Station, Carlisle. By the most direct route, over the Western Section of the LMS, Carlisle is 299.1 miles from London. The best up train -
Upperby sheds, of the one-
Passenger train activity at Carlisle is more or less spasmodic. Comparatively little traffic originates at Carlisle, but much important traffic passes through. The times at which trains reach Carlisle are thus chiefly conditioned by the times at which they have left cities such as London, Leeds, Glasgow, and Edinburgh. For connexion purposes, many of these services are arranged to converge at Carlisle, and the result is to provide periods of intense activity in the station, alternating with periods when the untutored observer might almost imagine the railway to be asleep.
If we begin the day at breakfast-
FREIGHT TRAINS rarely pass through the Citadel Station at Carlisle. Goods lines are carried to the west of the passenger station and rejoin the main line three-
At 11.45 am arrives the 9.30 am luncheon car express from Glasgow to Liverpool and Manchester. It is particularly important that this train be got away smartly at 11.51 am, or between Penrith and Preston it may delay the “Royal Scot”, which is not far behind. Before the appearance of the latter, however, the “Thames-
A NETWORK OF LINES is to be seen in the vicinity of Carlisle, where freight trains for all parts of Great Britain are made up. This is a view of some extensive sidings at Petteril Bridge.
And now, at 12.6 pm, the up “Royal Scot”, headed by one of the “Pacifics” of the “Princess Royal” class, draws in from the north. Both Glasgow and Edinburgh portions have left the Scottish cities at 10 am, and have been united at Symington. The
crew of the engine is changed here, and at 12.10 pm the “Royal Scot” sets out for London, making what is, for over nine months in the year, the longest regular non-
At 12.32 pm the 6.45 am express from Aberdeen to Euston arrives, probably in charge of a Midland 4-
run to Leeds. The Aberdeen express, with its five or six coaches, looks diminutive for a “Pacific”, but the engine is working through to Euston. The train later acquires various through portions and, with quite a heavy load, finishes triumphantly into
London with a timing of sixty-
leisureliness of transport round this coastal route. At the same moment (12.50) a “semi-
At 12.53 pm the morning luncheon car express from Leeds to Glasgow arrives, probably in charge of a “5X” 4-
Comparative peace now descends on Carlisle for two hours, until the next “intensive period”, which begins shortly before half-
Crewe, pulls in at 3.39 pm.
The “Midday Scot” is followed, on the opposite side of the station, by the down “Royal Scot” at 3.44pm. The former leaves at 3.43 pm, and the latter, having changed the crew of its “Pacific”, which works through from London to Glasgow, at 3.49 pm. In summer the down “Royal Scot” runs through Carlisle from Euston to Kingmoor, 301.1 miles, in 332 minutes.
At 3.51 pm the 10.5 am express from Aberdeen to Euston is due in at the north end, and four minutes after that, at 3.55 pm, the restaurant car express from Birmingham to Glasgow. They' resume their journeys at 3.57 and 4.0 pm, both having changed engines. Quickly following these, at 4.10 pm, is the combined 2 pm from Edinburgh and Glasgow to Liverpool and Manchester, due out again at 4.15 pm. This is also the booked arrival time of the Midland Division 10 am express from St. Pancras to Glasgow (St. Enoch), which starts away again at 4.20 pm.
From 7.20 to shortly after 9 pm is another busy time, beginning with the arrival from London of the down “Midday Scot” at 7.21 pm, and finishing at 9.5 pm with the exit for the south of the “West Coast Postal” express, which at Carlisle is made up to its full strength of vehicles and staff. Expresses now arrive from Glasgow for the south by both Caledonian and Glasgow and South Western routes, and from Edinburgh for Leeds.
And, finally, there is the extraordinary activity of Carlisle during the night hours. From about midnight onwards it sees little or no cessation. The nightly procession of express passenger and parcels trains leaving Carlisle on every summer night can have few parallels.
THE FIRST RAILWAY to reach Carlisle was the former North Eastern Railway in 1838. The Lancaster and Carlisle Railway -