Unique Difficulties Conquered by Courage and Persistence
THE MAIN STATION at Copenhagen in East Denmark. This is an important through station for traffic to the Scandinavian countries. A railway journey from Copenhagen to any foreign country necessarily involves crossing the sea, and the Danish railways operate several ferry services.
IT would be difficult to find a country more awkward than Denmark from the railway operation point of view. Reference to the map shows that this part of Scandinavia is geographically disunited. Its chief constituent is the lengthy and comp-
Furthermore, the capital, Copenhagen, is at the extreme eastern edge of the easternmost island, Zealand. In whatever direction, therefore, the railway passenger desires to travel from Copenhagen, waterways appear before many miles have been traversed. A water crossing is necessary from Copenhagen to reach any country other than Denmark and, save for the transit to Sweden or Norway, which takes the traveller only once across the water, all journeys from the Danish capital to other countries were, until 1935, broken twice by waterways before the frontier could be passed.
To do away with the constant transhipment of passengers and freight, the Railway Administration of Denmark has develop-
However short may be the distance to be traversed, and however efficient the working of a train-
The obstacle of two train-
STANDARD GAUGE RAILWAYS have been laid throughout Denmark, and there are about 3,250 miles of track in the country. The State Railways control some 1,560 miles of line. The first railway in Denmark was built as far back as 1847.
After leaving Copenhagen, the Jutland main line travels across Zealand for sixty-
From Nyborg there was formerly a run of fifty miles across Funen to Strib, where once again a waterway -
But now the Little Belt train-
As far back as 1885 the first measurements had been taken across the bed of the Little Belt in the hope that bridging might be ultimately possible, but it was not until 1924 that the decision was reached to embark on this costly undertaking.
The original estimated cost was 18,500,000 kroner (about £826,000, with the krone at 22.40 to the £), but when the work of construction was finally sanctioned in 1927, it was realized that, in view of the widespread development of motor traffic, it would be essential to accommodate a roadway as well as a railway on the new structure. And so the final expend-
The execution of the project was entrusted to the Danish firm of Monberg & Thorsen, which began work in 1929 by tipping the material for the enormous embankments which form the approaches to the bridge on either side. These approaches were completed by the construction of eight immense reinforced concrete arches -
But it is the central portion of the bridge which commands the most attention. Between the extremities of the ferro-
By this means it has been possible to bridge the deepest part of the channel with one clear span 722 ft across. This is flanked by two 541-
The work of building the four piers was one requiring great skill, and attracted world-
CANTILEVER CONSTRUCTION is used for the five main spans of Little Belt Bridge, the central span being 722 ft across, and
108 ft. above water level. The bridge cost over £1,000,000.
Next followed the task of erecting the steelwork. As is usual with cantilever structures, building proceeded from each pier outwards, thus utilizing to the full the principle of balance, until the girders met at the halfway point between each pair of piers. The maximum depth of the girders, at the centre of the bridge, is 80 ft. At high tide the middle span has a clearance of 108 ft above water level, so that there is no interference with navigation. The bridge carries a double line of standard gauge railway track, a roadway 20 ft wide, and a footway 6 ft 6-
The new bridge is about three miles distant from the old train-
From Fredericia the main lines of Jutland spread out fanwise -
But the Danish State Railways were not merely content to cut from their train schedules between Copenhagen and Jutland merely the time previously occupied in ferrying across the Little Belt. Simultaneously with the opening of the new bridge, a revision of the timetables of so drastic a character was undertaken that an aggregate cut of 2,200 minutes was made at one stroke in Danish train-
Accommodation is provided in each Lyntog for 168 passengers. The two outer cars seat “general” class passengers in large open compartments, with tables. In the middle car there are both first-
SYMBOLIZING STRENGTH. The Little Belt Bridge has one centre span 722 ft long, flanked by two 541 ft spans and two outside spans of 451 ft. Including the massive ferro-
Another of the Lyntog is named “Kronjyden”, and turns northward, after crossing the Little Belt Bridge, to Aarhus and Aalborg. Leaving Copenhagen at eight o’clock in the morning, it includes in its schedule the first run exceeding one hundred miles in length between stops that has ever yet been known in Denmark -
Until 1930, only just over a thousand miles of daily train journeys in Denmark were booked to be covered at forty miles an hour or over. To-
Next in importance of the Danish main lines is the one travelling southwards from Copenhagen to Gjedser, using the same tracks as the Jutland trains as far as Roskilde. Gjedser is the ferry terminal tor the direct service to Warnemunde, in Germany, by which through coaches and sleeping cars are run between Copenhagen and Berlin. This route offers another example of a short and a long ferry crossing. While the Gjedser-
The class of steel to be employed is of the quality known as “Chromador” which, with a certain percentage of both chrom-
AN EXPRESS LOCOMOTIVE built for the Danish State Railways in 1921. This 4-
Some of the fastest steam trains running in Denmark are made on the service between Copenhagen and Gjedser. From Masnedo -
But five such services will still of necessity remain in operation. In addition to that across the Great Belt, and the crossing between Gjedser and Warnemunde, which is operated jointly with the German State Railways, there is the crossing from the port at Copenhagen to Malmo in Sweden, worked jointly with the Swedish State Railways. Another ferry runs from Helsingor -
Denmark owns in all about 3,250 miles of line, of which barely one-
Danish railway history began in 1846 with the line from Altona to Kiel, but this was lost after the war of 1864, which resulted in Prussia’s seizure of Schleswig-
Many of the early locomotives were British also, and some of them have paid a notable tribute to British workmanship by remaining in service for over sixty years continuously. In 1862 the firm of Robert Stephenson built twenty-
BUILT IN GERMANY for the Danish State Railways in 1923 by the Borsig Company, this 2-
Locomotives of the Danish State Railways may be readily distinguished by the fact of their wearing the national colours -
About one thousand locomotives are used in Denmark, of which 670 belong to the State railways. The largest of the ninety
In addition, the progressive management of the Danish State Railways has lately electrified the suburban railways round Copenhagen; the reward of this enterprise has been an enormous increase in the traffic carried over these routes. The practice of earlier days has been reverted to by coming to Great Britain for the electrical equipment, which has been supplied by the English Electric Co, Ltd. The electrification is on the overhead system, at 1,500 volts DC.
The electrification has hastened the disappearance of much of the older rolling stock, and the passenger equipment of the Danish State Railways is now of a most up-
All the more modem stock is of corridor lavatory types, kept, as is customary in all parts of Scandinavia, in a condition of scrupulous cleanliness. Passenger travel in the “general” class works out at about 1¼ miles for a penny at the present rate of exchange; small supplementary fares are charged for the use of trains which are described in the time-
Among the stations which have been rebuilt during recent years is the main station at Copenhagen, now an ornament to the city. Its long, low frontage of terra-
From this hall stairways lead down to the platforms. Trains arriving from the west -
The Danish State Railways are thus well in the van of railway progress in Europe at the present time, both as regards train service and equipment.
AGAINST THE SKYLINE this modern Diesel-