THE EXPERIMENTAL 4-
IN 1885 the Philadelphia and Reading Railway obtained control of the Philadelphia and Atlantic City Railroad. At that time the latter was little more than a seaside village, though only 55½ miles from the busy city of Philadelphia, but the connecting steel highway was only of narrow gauge. The new owners, realizing the opportunity to convert the hamlet on the Atlantic seaboard into a popular summer holiday resort and residential centre for Philadelphians, embarked upon a comprehensive modernization scheme. The single narrow gauge track was torn up, the right of way widened, curves and banks eased as far as practicable, and a new standard gauge double track of the highest grade was built. A number of 4-
This excellent train service attracted traffic. Atlantic City became the seaside residential centre for the business men of Philadelphia in precisely the same way as Brighton and Southend serve the purposes of London’s commercial classes. During the summer season, owing to the popularity of the resort, the trains were often crowded to excess, but their length and weight reacted against the maintenance of the time schedule to the degree desired by the railway company.
Experience tended to prove that the limitations of the “American” type of engine had been reached. The railway company became convinced of the possibility of reducing the timing between the two points to the hour, if only a sufficiently powerful high-
The solution of the problem lay in the provision of a large boiler with ample heating surface for easy rapid steaming to meet high-
This locomotive had cylinders 19 by 24 inches. The boiler, 60 inches in diameter, carrying steam at 180 lb per square inch, was fitted with 256 tubes, 2 inches in diameter by 14 feet 3 inches in length, with the heating surface 1,914 square feet. The fire-
THE LARGEST AND MOST POWERFUL TYPE OF “ATLANTIC” ON THE PHILADELPHIA AND READING RAILROAD. Built in the company’s workshops at reading, this type made its appearance in 1915. The engines are notable for their unusually large grates, which have an area of 108 square feet. The working pressure is 215 lb per square inch.
The trials with this locomotive proving satisfactory, the railway company decided to launch a sixty minutes’ schedule between the city and the coast, inclusive of the 10 minutes required for the ferry, and instructed the Baldwin company to build units of sufficient power to cover the 55½ miles in 50 minutes with a train of six cars -
The two engines, built in 1896, were of the same wheel arrangement, but were of the Vauclain compound type, with the diameter of the high-
These two compounds proved exceptionally speedy in the trials, developing on test as much as 1,450 horse-
THE FIRST BRITISH “ATLANTIC”, BUILT FOR THE GREAT NORTHERN RAILWAY (1898). Total weight of engine ready for the road is 134,400 lb. Its boiler barrel is 56 inches in diameter by 152⅝ inches in length; the fire-
From the circumstance that the 4-
The new design was pioneered in Great Britain by the Great Northern Railway in 1898, though hard on its heels came a more powerful expression of the same design from the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway, which proved so successful over one of the most difficult lines in the country, crossing as it does the Pennine Range, as to lead to the immediate construction of fifty additional units of this class.
THE FIRST “ATLANTIC” BUILT FOR THE LANCASHIRE AND YORKSHIRE RAILWAY. The most notable feature is the large boiler which led to the popular nomenclature of “Big-
This locomotive excelled in essential dimensions and power the pioneer British “Atlantic” built by the Great Northern division of the London and North Eastern Railway. The cylinders were 19 inches in diameter by 26 inches stroke inside, connected to driving wheels 87 inches in diameter. The heating surface of the tubes was 1,361 square feet, and of the fire-
THE FIRST BRITISH “ATLANTIC”, BUILT FOR THE GREAT NORTHERN RAILWAY (1898). Ready for the road, the engine weighs 152,992 lb. The boiler barrel is 66 inches in diameter by 186| inches in length: the fire-
Once the “Atlantic” had established its value for high-
The Philadelphia and Reading Railway found it particularly difficult to keep abreast of traffic in regard to its motive power. After accelerating the journey between Atlantic City and Philadelphia to the 60 minutes, it essayed to speed up its expresses plying between Philadelphia and Jersey City (90 miles) in order to secure its share of the business flowing between the “Quaker City” and New York. The forward strides in regard to motive power were taken approximately at three-
THE TRIUMPH OF THE “ATLANTIC”
One of the Philadelphia and Reading Railway “flyers” going at 75 miles per hour. The total weight of the engine is 231,900 lb, and of this amount the 80-