KING’S CROSS STATION, the London starting place of the north-
FOR nearly three-
Except for that break, this famous express has made its daily departure at 10 am since June, 1862, from No. 10 platform at King’s Cross, while the up “Scotsman”, inaugurated at the same date has, with the exception of a short period during its earlier history, started from the Waverley Station, Edinburgh, at the same hour for London.
Since then nearly 45,000 journeys have been made, and the “Flying Scotsman” has travelled for a total of eighteen million miles between London and Edinburgh alone, apart from the still longer journeys of the portions of the train which run through to Glasgow, Perth and Aberdeen.
Every year the mileage run by the “Flying Scotsman” between the English and Scottish capitals would be sufficient to take each of the two trains on the service roughly five times round the world.
During this long life tremendous changes have taken place. When the “Flying Scotsman” first ran, the coaches of which it was composed were six-
These fine vehicles were 64 ft 6 in long, of an American pattern, with bow-
Until 1900 the “Flying Scotsman” had always stopped for twenty minutes at York while its passengers ate a hasty lunch in the station dining-
A FAMOUS FLYER of 1870. This famous locomotive, designed by Patrick Stirling of the old Great Northern Railway, was one of the fastest engines in Great Britain. The driving wheels were 8 ft 1 in diameter, and engines of this type hauled the “Flying Scotsman” all the year round between London and York.
From 1900 onwards the rolling-
No less revolutionary has been the development of motive power. It was in the year 1870 that the first of the famous “8-
The weight of later engines of this type was increased to 45 tons, and the working pressure to 160 lb. Among other distinctive external features of these engines was that the boiler carried no dome but, as was customary in all Stirling designs, was bare of mountings from the chimney right back to the safety-
But the introduction of the new and heavier coaches in 1900 began to tax the single-
But it was in 1902 that an even more revolutionary change came about by providing one of these engines -
The boilers of these engines have a heating surface of 2,500 sq ft, and the area of the fire-
AN ARTICULATED RESTAURANT CAR forming part of the “Flying Scotsman” express. The illustration clearly shows the method of carrying two coach-
These famous “Atlantics” reigned supreme for twenty years on the Great Northern Railway. In the same period various
But still the demand was insistent for heavier trains and more powerful locomotives. In 1911 Mr. H. N. Gresley had succeeded Ivatt at Doncaster, and in 1922 -
With the increase in size and power, of course, came a great increase in weight; As compared with the 38½ tons of the first Stirling “8-
The latest “Super-
Most of the “Pacifics” are named, appropriately, after famous racehorses. The best-
THE “FLYING SCOTSMAN” Pacific-
An even more notable locomotive was produced by Mr. Gresley at Doncaster in 1934 -
YORK, one of the principal stations on the route of the “Flying Scotsman”. York is 188 miles from the London terminus at King’s Cross.
COOKING BY ELECTRICITY. The chef and his assistant in the wonderful all-
Thus “Cock o’ the North”, as the No. 2001 is called, has four pairs of driving-
When it first began to run, in June 1862, the “Flying Scotsman” carried first-
The announcement of an acceleration of the service in July, 1888, to a time of 8½ hours had a startling sequel. It was nothing less than a “race” between the companies forming respectively the East Coast and West Coast routes to Scotland, to show which could reach Edinburgh in the quicker time from London.
The fastest time made was 7 hours 26¾ minutes, and for a short while afterwards 7¾ hours appeared in the time-
But as a regular proposition it was rather in advance of the powers of the engines of the period, and so relapsed again to the 8½ hours originally proposed. At between 8½ and, latterly, 8¼ hours the time remained, except for slowing down during the War, until the end of 1932.
Meanwhile, there had been at least one remarkable development in the summer working of the “Flying Scotsman”. In 1927, the first of the two portions invariably run during the height of the season was booked without a stop from King’s Cross to Newcastle, a distance of 268.3 miles. But this was completely overshadowed in the following year, when, from May onwards, the “Flying Scotsman” was, for the first time, scheduled to make a non-
The 8¼ hour schedule was still continued -
This performance, however, called for one special detail of equipment, which is found on no railway in the world other than the LNER. This is the corridor type of tender used on these runs. It was not regarded as advisable that one driver and fireman should man the engine for so long a period as 8¼ hours continuously; the strain on the driver of observing the signals controlled by something like 200 signal-
A new type of tender was therefore constructed, with a corridor passage down the side. The back of the tender has a vestibule connexion like that of a coach, which is connected up to the front coach on the train; from this a narrow passage, 18 in wide and 5 ft high, is conducted along the side of the tender to a door opening on to the footplate; the passage is lighted by a circular window in the end of the tender. At the midway point of the journey, when passing Alne, 11¼ miles north of York, the second crew, who up till then have been resting in a reserved compartment in the coach immediately behind the tender, pass through the front guard's brake and the tender corridor on to the footplate, where they exchange places with the crew which have worked the engine to this point.
THE “FLYING SCOTSMAN” EXPRESS weighing over 400 tons, covers the 392¾ miles from London to Edinburgh at over 50 miles an hour. This picture gives a vivid impression of the famous train at high speed.
This arrangement is in force only during the period of non-
With their capacity for 5,000 gallons of water and 9 tons of coal, these huge corridor tenders weigh, when full, 56 tons apiece, or all but half as much again as the Stirling “8-
In May, 1932, a great acceleration of all the Anglo-
Let us look now at the “Flying Scotsman” as it stands at No. 10 platform at King’s Cross. Next to the engine comes a through composite coach -
Large toilet compartments are placed on these cars, and a supply of hot water can be obtained both winter and summer, for the heating is by electricity, and so is not dependent on the winter supply of steam-
Down the side of the corridor of the next coach there are illuminated projecting signs, similar to those in the corridor of an hotel. The first door on the left is labelled “Hairdressing Saloon”, which caters for both men and women. Next to this is a “Ladies’ Retiring Room”, and then, after two or three third-
Beyond the bar are the restaurant cars. The restaurant car unit is “articulated” in the well-
In the kitchen all the cookery is carried out electrically. Large accumulators are charged before the run begins, and more electricity is made during the journey.
To enable everyone to identify this famous train, the name “The Flying Scotsman” is carried on the roof of each coach, on both sides; on a white name-
BERWICK BORDER BRIDGE spans the Tweed and links England with Scotland. A Scottish express is shown crossing the arches of this great viaduct.
[From part 6, published 8 March 1935]
[Read the previous article in part 6]