From Wooden Chariot to All-
IN probably no branch of the railway industry has greater progress been recorded than in the development of passenger rolling-
Between the present main-
The modern mind finds it hard to believe that the unsightly box-
The first railway carriage expressly designed for carrying passengers was the coach “Experiment”, which made its initial run over the Stockton and Darlington system on October 10, 1825, a fortnight after the formal opening of the railway.
The carriage consisted of a coach body with a door at either side and the usual glazed windows, a table and seats for the inside, top seats and steps. The under-
ON THE WORLD’S FIRST PUBLIC RAILWAY, the Stockton and Darlington, carriages of the pattern shown left were used. This interesting photograph is of a model belonging to the LMS in the Science Museum, South Kensington. Its close relationship to the stage coach can be clearly distinguished.
As was to be expected, almost all the early railway passenger carriages followed in their design the general lines of the stage coach. So slavishly was stage-
In 1838 Brunel constructed a carriage which was styled a “grand saloon”. This, according to a contemporary writer, was “complete with every convenience and luxury, being most gorgeously fitted up”.
In general, however, luxury travel was non-
With three pairs of wheels, these vehicles could not be constructed long enough for requirements without becoming too lengthy to negotiate curves safely. To overcome this difficulty the bogie truck was evolved, enabling relatively long passenger cars to be built, better suited to traffic needs.
Wooden construction throughout was generally favoured for the early carriages. With the perfection of steel manufacture big changes were made. Steel under-
European passenger stock was almost all of the compartment pattern for many years, and even to-
Heating, lighting and ventilation of railway passenger stock have progressed strikingly. Many people remember the foot-
AN EARLY CANADIAN COACH. The locomotive is the “Samson”, built by Timothy Hackworth in England in 1838. The engine was originally used for hauling coal from the mines at Stellarton in Nova Scotia.
The four main railways of Great Britain own nearly 50,000 passenger carriages -
The comfort of railway travel is well known, but it is not so generally known that the improved equipment which has contributed to this comfort has increased the weight of trains from four to twelve hundredweight per passenger. Thus, while the average steam suburban train of ten cars seats about 800 third-
Almost all British passenger carriages are of bogie design, but on the Continent of Europe four-
For suburban services the saloon type of passenger coach is favoured in Europe. But in Great Britain there is a tendency to revert to the compartment arrangement. This is because of the maximum amount of seating accommodation for a given floor space secured through the use of compartment stock -
Swing doors, opening outwards, are usual for compartment stock, but they influence the height of platform and other clearances, and on this account are open to objection. Both swing and sliding doors are utilized on the European saloon-
Transverse seats are generally provided by the European lines, these being of two patterns, viz: (1) fixed seats, with only half the passengers facing the direction of travel; and (2) seats with movable backs, where all passengers face the direction of travel. Seats with movable backs are generally found in use on suburban services.
IN 1837. A passenger train of first-
The average weight of the British passenger carriage works out at twenty-
Before the amalgamation there was great diversity in the passenger rolling-
A VIVID CONTRAST is provided by these two pictures. Left is the interior of the latest type of LMS third-
CRUDE IN DESIGN. The lower photograph shows a model of a third-
Hand in hand with this standardization of outside dimensions has gone the standardization of interior equipment, furnishings and decorations. And the result has been to embody all the best features once included in the stock of the constituent companies, while discarding features of little or no value from the point of both the passenger’s comfort and convenience.
The advantages of the all-
The weight of the “Flying Scotsman” averages 425 tons, and 360 passengers are accommodated, so that more than one ton dead weight per passenger is hauled, this being largely attributable to the luxurious and roomy passenger stock. Typical passenger coaches which make up the London and North Eastern Railway expresses to Scotland include first-
EARLY RAIL TRAVEL. A train composed of second-
On the London Midland and Scottish expresses to Scotland a typical train accommodates 108 first-
On the Great Western system, new train sets for the “Cornish Riviera Express” consist of thirteen cars, each 60 ft in length, 9 ft 7 in wide, and 35 tons in weight. The cars are of fire-
Although, when compared with America and other countries, Europe cannot boast of exceptionally long railway runs, the European railways make provision for night travel on a most considerate scale. And in recent years the passenger’s comfort has been largely heightened by the inclusion of first-
A FINE ILLUSTRATION of the luxury provided by the railways of to-
THE DUKE OF WELLINGTON used the carriage shown in the picture below. Coaches of this design were in use about 1838.
British London and North Eastern first-
Each vehicle carries ten separate private bedrooms arranged in pairs which, if so desired, may be converted into five double bedrooms by means of communicating doors. Each little bedroom has its own full-
Of vehicles of a more unusual type recently put into service in Great Britain, much interest attaches to the batch of observation cars introduced by the Great Western Railway. These take the form of first-
In addition to the various luxurious vehicles named, a considerable number of Pullmans is operated over the British railways. The Southern was a leader in the Pullman movement, and the most famous British Pullman is the “Brighton Belle” -
On the London and North Eastern line all-
On the continent of Europe most of the luxury services are provided by the International Sleeping Car Company. Founded in 1876, this company now operates through trains and cars of its own over most of the principal European main-
The latest stock introduced by the International Sleeping Car Company takes the form of “Grand Luxe” cars for use on the Calais-
THE LONDON AND YORK RAILWAY in 1839 used the type of second-
Across the Channel, the Pullman Car Company operates the “Golden Arrow” Pullman between Paris and Calais in association with the Nord Railway. Other European Pullman services are those between Paris and Antwerp, Ostend and Cologne, Paris and Amsterdam (the “North Star”), Paris and the Riviera, and Paris and Madrid. Elsewhere on the Continent, the Pullman Car Company operates between Cannes and Milan, and Antwerp and Zurich (the “Edelweiss”).
The “Rheingold” express is one of the most famous of European Pullman trains. It runs between the Hook of Holland and Basle, Switzerland, and is formed of all-